Environmental Health & Safety
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A Job Hazard Analysis (sometimes called a “Job Safety Analysis”) is a technique that focuses on job tasks as a way to identify hazards before they occur. It focuses on the relationship between the worker, the task, the tools, and the work environment. Ideally, after you identify uncontrolled hazards, you will take steps to eliminate or reduce them to an acceptable risk level.
Why is job hazard analysis important?
Many workers are injured and killed at the workplace every day in the United States. Safety and health can add value to your business, your job, and your life. You can help prevent workplace injuries and illnesses by looking at your workplace operations, establishing proper job procedures, and ensuring that all employees are trained properly. One of the best ways to determine and establish proper work procedures is to conduct a job hazard analysis. A job hazard analysis is one component of the larger commitment of a safety and health management system.
What is the value of a job hazard analysis?
Supervisors can use the findings of a job hazard analysis to eliminate and prevent hazards in their workplaces. This is likely to result in fewer worker injuries and illnesses; safer, more effective work methods; reduced workers’ compensation costs; and increased worker productivity. The analysis also can be a valuable tool for training new employees in the steps required to perform their jobs safely. For a job hazard analysis to be effective, management must demonstrate its commitment to safety and health and follow through to correct any uncontrolled hazards identified.
Where do I begin?
How do I identify workplace hazards?
A job hazard analysis is an exercise in detective work. Your goal is to discover the following:
To make your job hazard analysis useful, document the answers to these questions in a consistent manner. Describing a hazard in this way helps to ensure that your efforts to eliminate the hazard and implement hazard controls help target the most important contributors to the hazard.
Good hazard scenarios describe:
Rarely is a hazard a simple case of one singular cause resulting in one singular effect. More frequently, many contributing factors tend to line up in a certain way to create the hazard.
An example of a hazard scenario:
In the metal shop (environment), while clearing a snag (trigger), a worker’s hand (exposure) comes into contact with a rotating pulley. It pulls his hand into the machine and severs his fingers (consequences) quickly. Perform a job hazard analysis, you would ask:
What can go wrong? The worker’s hand could come into contact with a rotating object that “catches” it and pulls it into the machine. Also, a worker could improperly lift heavy stock and injure their back. Flying debris could injure an employee especially if it hits them in their eyes.
What are the consequences? The worker could receive a severe injury and lose fingers and hands.
How could it happen? The accident could happen as a result of the worker trying to clear a snag during operations or as part of a maintenance activity while the pulley is operating. Obviously, this hazard scenario could not occur if the pulley is not rotating.
What are other contributing factors? This hazard occurs very quickly. It does not give the worker much opportunity to recover or prevent it once his hand comes into contact with the pulley. This is an important factor, because it helps you determine the severity and likelihood of an accident when selecting appropriate hazard controls. Unfortunately, experience has shown that training is not very effective in hazard control when triggering events happen quickly because humans can react only so quickly.
How likely is it that the hazard will occur? This determination requires some judgment. If there have been “near-misses” or actual cases, then the likelihood of a recurrence would be considered high. If the pulley is exposed and easily accessible, that also is a consideration. In the example, the likelihood that the hazard will occur is high because there is no guard preventing contact, and the operation is performed while the machine is running. By following the steps in this example, you can organize your hazard analysis activities.
A standard JHA form helps you organize your information to provide these details:
D. A. Casavant
Blood / OPIM
Slip / trip
Pinching / rolling √
Adjacent activities √
Other: Flying Debris √
Machine Guarding must be installed properly at all times
Work Practice Controls
Employee must first complete the “Safe Lifting” training class
Employee must first complete the “Safe Machine Guarding & Operation” training class
Personal Protective Equipment
Steel toe footwear
Clean up area
Lifting – muscle strain
Moving parts – pinch
Flying stock waste
Over 25lb, keep stock close to body. Assistance if needed
Watch hands, no lose clothes
Wear safety glasses
Prior to removing snag, ensure that rotating parts have stopped moving
Steel toe footwear, gloves, use proper squat techniques
Physical Plant Services JSAs